Moving your limbs, moving your eyes, reading, talking, doing things that you are used to and don’t feel much different, some complex activities happen instantly in the brain. Comparing the brain and the computer, the human brain is undoubtedly superior in many respects. But research on whether to equip the brain with a smart device is having great success. It is used in many places to facilitate daily work. Although we do not know the answer to the question of whether brain-like devices will work in the future, there is no doubt that it will be interesting to know how the brain learns.
In the last few articles, we learned about how the brain works. This is the last article in that sequence. In this article, we will learn about the functioning of brain cells, as well as how humans have mastered the technology of everyday life.
Cells in the brain are called “neurons.” Neurons look like a newly planted plant. The center of the cell (soma) is in the center, while numerous angular branches appear on one side. They are called ‘dendrites’. Actually, they should be called ‘antennas’. Its job is to receive information from distant cells. Each neuron also has another long tail, like the root of a plant. They are called ‘Axan’. They are tasked with transmitting cellular information to other parts of the brain.
Suppose a cell is a button that is turned on or off to know how messages work in the brain. How to use a lamp in your house When the information reaches the cell, it is in the “on” state. At the same time, it has to do the work of transmitting the information we have to another cell. The exchange of information or messages in the brain is done by electrical / chemical currents. Flow from the microscopic end of the axon stimulates the dendrites of another cell. Auxin and dendrites do not stick together. They both have a very small cavity. (It’s called a synapse.) Some chemical particles are released from the end of the axon and adhere to the protein particles in the dendrites. (These chemicals are called “neurotransmitters.” Researchers now know about a hundred different types of neurotransmitters.) This adhesion is caused by an electrical charge. Through this action, information from the axon is transmitted to another cell via dendrites. This chain of exchange continues through the network of axons and dendrites that extend throughout the brain until the message reaches the right place.
(It can be said that this network is many times larger than the railway network scattered around the world). New information is constantly reaching the brain. You may have noticed that this game of obtaining and delivering information will continue unabated. Even if you don’t realize it, right now, thousands, millions of times, such an action is happening in your own brain. As you read, sit on a chair, move your arms and legs, shake your neck, roll your eyes, this game that runs inside the brain may seem unimaginable.
The billions of cells and their interconnected “connections” are beyond comprehension. All you need to remember is that if the connections connecting cells are strong, information will go from one place to another in an instant. As well as how the road trip is faster than the dirt road. The power of connections depends on how much information we collect (that is, our learning) and how much we use it. It is undeniable that the secret of our knowledge lies in these connections.
You may wonder if new information is being stored in the brain at any given time. As information enters the brain, it passes through a filter, the filter of your emotions. This filter understands that we listen to information that we think is important. That information is then sent to the areas where it will be kept. When we are under some kind of stress, our brain does not take the information that comes from the outside, the pain from the body or any other place, the information that comes seriously. So when learning new things, the environment should be stress-free and the mood should be enthusiastic. That is, we can learn only if we have a sincere desire to learn. Also, when we think of new information, we summarize it, we review it, we discuss it, we use that knowledge, it begins to settle in the brain. (In the previous article, ‘Flashcard in the brain’, we have seen how new learning is transformed into permanent memory).
Moving into the computer age
Knowledge, information, experiences are stored in the brain, the brain thinks using it, it learns from our past experiences. Deepening our knowledge takes a characteristic leap on a topic. Can such knowledge be stored in a machine? Can you teach yourself to think? A computer was created through these efforts. Today our life is impossible without a traveler.
Let’s take an example to understand the difference between brain learning and computer learning. Just showing an engine is enough to teach the brain what a motor vehicle is. Suppose a car comes to a village where you have never seen a car, the children will gather around the dusty car, look at its shape, look at its four wheels, look at the steering wheel, the car can turn when it turns, and soon. They will immediately understand how an engine differs from a bullock cart, a handcart. After that, if the car goes back to the village, they won’t have to say “this is the car” again. They will also find the difference between the two cars. Starting from the example above, many important pieces of information about the car were stored in different places in the brain. But to understand what an engine is, a computer has to display hundreds, thousands of images. You will have to explain what a vehicle is. It must be explained that the engine is different from other vehicles. Be it a luxury car or a jeep, etc., you have to clarify the difference. Were you surprised to learn that the brain makes learning easier and faster?
When designing the computer, the researchers realized that instead of simply giving her information, they had to “teach” her and make her think. From there came the ‘neural network’, a system that, in simple terms, mimics the network of brain cells and messaging. For that, let’s learn a little more about brain messages. The lining of the brain is called the cortex. The crust is believed to have seven thin layers one on top of the other. Each layer contains a network of neurons. Neurons in the first layer interact with neurons in the second layer. For that, they are connected to each other. (Neurons in the same layer, however, do not communicate with each other. Their job is to send information to neurons in the next layer.) When information reaches the second layer, neurons act on that information and send it to neurons in the upper layer. In this way the information continues to flow. As the information progresses, it becomes more in-depth and accurate.
The programming method for teaching computers to think is called ‘Artificial Neural Network’ (ANN). The study of artificial intelligence began in the 1950s. The performance of scientists in this field over the past fifty to sixty years is simply unmatched. Humans still don’t fully understand how the brain learns. But as seen above, it is known how cells interact. From that, ‘units’ or ‘nodes’ were made in the computer instead of cells. There is a growing knowledge about what needs to be achieved, how many nodes will be needed, how many nodes to connect to, how strong this connection must be. This connection method is an important part of neural networks. This led to an attempt to give the computer its own ability to think.
From simple questions to complex questions, scientists are using artificial intelligence as needed. On your watches, on your mobile, wherever you are, you are unknowingly making your life comfortable by relying on neural networks. Verify your handwriting or signature, verify your face or fingerprint, indicate your ‘credit rating’, how much money to save at an ATM, how to stop using a fake credit card, what ads to show you when you go to Google? the works depend on ANN. ANN is being used in various fields like advertising, healthcare, banking. This operating system saves time, work and money. ANN-based programs run fast and are accurate. This is proving the usefulness of ANN in many areas. Hundreds of language machines that we speak are beginning to understand each other. Accurately translating your speech and writing into words is considered a big leap. This research is called ‘Deep Learning’. A driverless car was a dream come true for a while, but now it is believed that it will come true in a few years. In this way, it can be seen everywhere that scientists have killed Hanuman Udi after working tirelessly.
Brain and computing competence
Chess is considered a rich game that entertains the brain with new challenges. Its novelty is infinite due to the games that will surprise you at all times. Therefore, it would be a surprise if the ANN computer is not used. Initially, computers were used for “databases” of matches. The next step was to teach chess to a computer using a neural network. In this place, the new player went on to learn the computer as he learned the game. How are the camels and horses in the game, how is the vizier important, how is it important to save the king, otherwise the entrances will end, what to do when you have the courage? He was taught to play according to the situation. Alpha Zero is a neural network based chess engine, a program that tells you what to play (of course there are many programs like this). You have played 30 crore matches so far to learn the above method. So you can imagine his ability to play chess. You have not played a match with a human being and if you do, there is no chance that a human will survive. The possibility that machines can beat him will be possible in the near future. Worried? Of course, how much intelligence will the machine be given? Will the human brain lose its power due to increasing dependence on intelligent machines? Will intelligent machines manipulate man? Will the computer become the enemy of man without be your companion ?, time will tell. But the human brain is an incomprehensible code and it is not in our nature to succumb to circumstances. Therefore, this article concludes with the firm conviction that the human brain will always be one step ahead.
First Posted Apr 17, 2021 1:06 am
Web title: brain learning and artificial intelligence comparison of brain and computer zws 70
Copyright © 2021 The Indian Express [P] limited. All rights reserved.